Monday, December 11, 2017

Takotsubo's and Antidepressants






Takotsubo's cardiomyopathy (TC) is a form of acute dilated cardiomyopathy.  It was first described in Japan in 1990 and since then there have been increasing reports of the problem.  It is an uncommon problem thought to be due to excessive catecholamines and their effects on heart muscle. As seen in the above ventriculography the left ventricle is dilated and elongated.  The typical presentation is acute coronary syndrome (dyspnea, chest pain, syncope) with a  low to modest levels of troponin - a biomarker for cardiac tissue damage.  Electrocardiogram show T wave inversions and ST segment elevation.  Echocardiograms show  The imaging results generally show and acutely dilated and lengthened left ventricle and wall motion abnormalities. Overall this pathology represents a low number of cases with acute coronary syndrome.  Most people recover in up to 4 weeks if the diagnosis is made and the patient is treated.

One of the questions that psychiatrists face is whether to resume existing therapy or withhold in the case of a new diagnosis of cardiac disease.  It is not an easy decision.  At least it is not a straightforward as it used to be.  In complicated situations in the past, psychiatric medications were routinely discontinued.  Today - talking with a consultant it is much more common to hear:  "Yes those adverse reactions are possible but if the patient needs the medication - they need the medication."  There are no strict rules on the issue like there seem to have been at one point.  The ideal medication for cardiac problems in psychiatry has limited effect on cardiac conduction and is benign in terms of hemodynamics.  Those effects are difficult to predict on both an individual and group basis in that small number of cases where the response is more critical.  As an example, I contacted an expert on hypertension and he advised me that he was generally unconcerned about the two antidepressants that I end up monitoring for possible effects - buproprion and venlafaxine.  In his experience, he though they added an average of 3 mm Hg systolic hypertension and that is trivial.  I am seeing people on more medications who may have alcohol and substance use problems that can significantly compound the hypertension problem.  The blood pressure I see are considerably higher in some cases where these antidepressants are used or added.

TC was first reported in 1990.  Case reports on TC and the association with antidepressants began to show up in about 2008 with a case report involving nortriptyline (15).  A recent letter to the editor (1) points out the trend and the possible correlation based on the temporal relationship between antidepressant initiation/titration and TC (4).  In that paper the authors identified 8 cases in the literature and a case series of 6 patients.  They report their case as well as 8 additional cases and the demographic, clinical, laboratory data of all of the patients.  Eight of 9 cases were women in the age range of 37 to 82.  In each of these cases the patient was taking an SNRI (venlafaxine, desmethylvenlafaxine, and duloxetine).  The youngest patient overdosed on 2100 mg venlafaxine.  The presumed etiology in the initial cases was a stressor that lead to catecholamine excess and cardiomyocyte toxicity, but in 5/9 cases a stressor was not present.  Although the authors note the association with SNRI type antidepressant case have been reported with atomoxetine (an NRI), fluoxetine (an SSRI), with a case of serotonin syndrome, and withdrawal of antidepressant therapy.  The association in the case reports may be seem more robust that it really is.   Although the case reprts and incident of ACS are low - the sheer number of cases (one every 25 seconds in the USA) assures that even low prevalence disorders like TC will occur in significant numbers.

What are the implications for psychiatrists?  The prototype for me in this case was clozapine.  Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic with many side effects.  The focus for most psychiatrists has been the neurophil monitoring and prevention of agranulocytosis.  Clozapine also has significant cardiac side effects including acute myocarditis with typical symptoms of myocarditis.  I think that anyone prescribing clozapine needs to be aware of these symptoms and monitor the patient for them.  In this case the cardiac review of systems is critical along with the physical examination of the patient at every visit or at least until they are on a stable dose of medication.

Antidepressants are generally approached in a more casual manner than antipsychotics.  Every patient needs to be carefully screened for side effects and the medication needs to be stopped or modified as indicated.  There should be more vigilance after FDA warnings about the QTc prolonging properties of antidepressants specifically citalopram. But if a patient has an arrhythmia questions on a review of systems are probably not enough.  I can say that because I take my own vitals signs and know that patients with new onset arrhythmias (atrial fibrillation, ventricular premature contractions, bigeminy, etc) are generally missed with standard blood pressure measurement systems and the patient is unaware that they are no longer in normal sinus rhythm.  In many cases tachycardia and other symptoms of acute coronary syndrome are the only findings.  These case reports illustrate to me that psychiatrists and primary care physicians prescribing these medications need to have a low threshold for testing and referral both to the emergency department and cardiology.   As previously posted - if you are in a large mental health clinic and have enough support staff - consider getting an ECG machine.  A faxed abnormal ECG and a verbal report is a sure way to get the attention of a cardiologist or emergency medicine physician.

In terms of the eventual epidemiology and pathophysiology of TC, inferring that SNRIs are definitely involved in either is highly speculative at this point.  In many ways the situation resembles the problem of seeing Vitamin D deficiency as being causative for any number of disorders when there is a high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in the population.  I have always seen SNRIs as better tolerated than SSRIs with a cardiac  safety profile that might be slightly better if the prolonged QTc interval issue with citalopram was real.  The best way to study the issue is to identify large numbers of patients with TC on echocardiogram and compare them to a control group and see if the correlation between SNRIs and TC is real.  As far as I know that study has not been done.

In the meantime, pay close attention to the cardiovascular status of patients on antidepressants, especially during the titration phase and if they may have a high catecholamine load inferred from clinical anxiety, exacerbations of physical illness, and stress levels. .  Use findings like tachycardia as a prompt for more focused questions and examination.

Takotsubo's cardiomyopathy is just another medical condition that can complicate psychiatric treatment - that you do not want to miss.                           




George Dawson, MD, DFAPA




References:

1: Madias JE. Venlafaxine and takotsubo syndrome: Can we learn more from published patient cases? Int J Cardiol. 2016 Dec 15;225:73-74. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.09.133. Epub 2016 Oct 1. PubMed PMID: 27716552.

2: Conrad SK, Catalano MC, Catalano G. The Use of Fluoxetine in a Patient With Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy. J Psychiatr Pract. 2016 May;22(3):234-8. doi: 10.1097/PRA.0000000000000151. PubMed PMID: 27123803. 

3: Naguy A, Al-Mutairi H, Al-Tajali A. Atomoxetine-related Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy. J Psychiatr Pract. 2016 May;22(3):232-3. doi: 10.1097/PRA.0000000000000152. PubMed PMID: 27123802. 

4: Vasudev R, Rampal U, Patel H, Patel K, Bikkina M, Shamoon F. Selective Serotonin-norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors-induced Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy. N Am J Med Sci. 2016 Jul;8(7):312-5. doi: 10.4103/1947-2714.187153. PubMed PMID: 27583240.

4: Madias JE. Withdrawal of prolonged antidepressant therapy and Takotsubo syndrome. Heart Lung. 2014 Nov-Dec;43(6):578. doi: 10.1016/j.hrtlng.2014.06.053. Epub 2014 Jul 22. PubMed PMID: 25063669. 

5: Dias A, Franco E, Figueredo VM, Hebert K, Quevedo HC. Occurrence of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and use of antidepressants. Int J Cardiol. 2014 Jun 15;174(2):433-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.04.028. Epub 2014 Apr 13. PubMed PMID: 24768456. 

6: Kitami M, Oizumi H, Kish SJ, Furukawa Y. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy associated with lithium intoxication in bipolar disorder: a case report. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2014 Jun;34(3):410-1. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0b013e3182a95a27. PubMed PMID: 24699038. 

7: Marabotti C, Venturini E, Marabotti A, Pingitore A. Delayed multifocal recurrent stress-induced cardiomyopathy after antidepressants withdrawal. Heart Lung. 2014 May-Jun;43(3):225-30. doi: 10.1016/j.hrtlng.2014.03.003. PubMed PMID: 24794783. 

8: Neil CJ, Chong CR, Nguyen TH, Horowitz JD. Occurrence of Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy in association with ingestion of serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors. Heart Lung Circ. 2012 Apr;21(4):203-5. doi: 10.1016/j.hlc.2011.12.004. Epub 2012 Jan 27. PubMed PMID: 22285074. 

9: Rotondi F, Manganelli F, Carbone G, Stanco G. "Tako-tsubo" cardiomyopathy and duloxetine use. South Med J. 2011 May;104(5):345-7. doi: 10.1097/SMJ.0b013e318213f3e5. PubMed PMID: 21606714. 

10: Trohman RG, Madias C. Duloxetine-induced tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy: implications for preventing a broken heart. South Med J. 2011 May;104(5):303-4. doi: 10.1097/SMJ.0b013e318213d10f. PubMed PMID: 21606702. 

11: Forman MB, Sutej PG, Jackson EK. Hypertension, tachycardia, and reversible cardiomyopathy temporally associated with milnacipran use. Tex Heart Inst J. 2011;38(6):714-8. PubMed PMID: 22199446; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3233339. 

12: Selke KJ, Dhar G, Cohn JM. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy associated with titration of duloxetine. Tex Heart Inst J. 2011;38(5):573-6. PubMed PMID: 22163139; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3231522. 

13: Mehta NK, Aurigemma G, Rafeq Z, Starobin O. Reverse takotsubo cardiomyopathy: after an episode of serotonin syndrome. Tex Heart Inst J. 2011;38(5):568-72. PubMed PMID: 22163138; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3231548. 

14: Christoph M, Ebner B, Stolte D, Ibrahim K, Kolschmann S, Strasser RH, Schön S. Broken heart syndrome: Tako Tsubo cardiomyopathy associated with an overdose of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor Venlafaxine. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010 Aug;20(8):594-7. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2010.03.009. Epub 2010 May 7. PubMed PMID: 20451358. 

15: De Roock S, Beauloye C, De Bauwer I, Vancraynest D, Gurne O, Gerber B, Hantson P. Tako-tsubo syndrome following nortriptyline overdose. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2008 Jun;46(5):475-8. doi: 10.1080/15563650701519786. PubMed PMID: 18568805. 

16: Wachira JK, Stys TP. Cardiovascular disease and bridging the diagnostic gap. SD Med. 2013 Sep;66(9):366-9. Review. PubMed PMID: 24279112.





Attribution:

"Levocardiography in the right anterior oblique position shows the picture of an octopus pot, which is characteristic for Takotsubo cardiomyopathy."

Hammer N, Kühne C, Meixensberger J, Hänsel B, Winkler D.  Takotsubo cardiomyopathy - An unexpected complication in spine surgery. Int J Surg Case Rep (2014).  Link Used per open access license.

Saturday, December 2, 2017

How Will Electronic Pill Monitoring Be Accepted In A Post-Orwellian Society?






Pretty well I would say.

That is by definition.  Orwellian is a term that captures the world George Orwell described in his classic book 1984.  Free society no longer exists as the people are manipulated by state propaganda, surveillance, and overt coercion.  As Orwell put it (1): "Political language is designed to make lies truthful and murder respectable and to give an appearance of solidity to pure wind."  More contemporary authors like Nunberg(2) have pointed out that somewhere along the way - what were considered classic Orwellian terms like jackboot have been replaced with less emotionally loaded terms that nonetheless have the same value as propaganda or misinformation.  Recent events illustrate that the Internet is a veritable firehose of misinformation from a wide range of parties that have to gain from misdirecting the public.  Nunberg points out that political language these days is less stark and intimidating than Orwell proposed - but the intent is undeniable.

A parallel process has been the gradual loss of privacy ever since the monitoring with Social Security numbers became widespread.  There is an associated acceptance that the government and even businesses should have wide spread access to personal information of most if not all citizens.  Forty years ago, no physician would have predicted that medical care in the US would be dictated by governments and businesses.  Health care in America is definitely post-Orwellian.  Patients don't complain.  The physicians that do are typically squelched by the big tent philosophy of medical societies and businesses that have an affinity for the physician executive.

That brings me to the topic of electronic monitoring of medication compliance or adherence.  No matter what you call it - it involves the percentage of medications taken as prescribed.  I am often in the situation where I am seeing a patient in an initial consultation and I have to determine what medications they were taking from a list of medications labelled as their medications.  In addition to the specific medications, I ask them what percentage of the medications they have been taking in the past month.  I get estimates from 0% to 50% in many cases.  Not taking medications is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality not only in psychiatry but also in populations taking antihypertensives, cardiac medications, antibiotics, and medications for diabetes mellitus.

Enter the new idea in pharmaceuticals.  Put a chip in the pill and use it to monitor the pills taken.  More advanced applications include monitoring of physiological parameters or in the case of electropharmaceuticals deliver a therapeutic electric current to an organ or system in the body to treat disease.  The first device to be sold in an FDA approved medication is the the Abilify MyCite preparation (aripiprazole-sensor) sold by Otsuka Pharmaceutical Company.  The system consists of a small (1 mm) chip in the pill.  The system was designed by Proteus Digital Health.  The chip consists of a small silicon microcircuit that transmits a unique identification code when the pill hits gastric acid.  The chip is not powered by a battery, but an electrochemical reaction that occurs when the cuprous chloride and magnesium strips on the chip meet stomach acid and that triggers a brief electrochemical reaction that transmits the code to a patch the patient wears on the skin.  From there the data is transmitted to a Smartphone App and a provider portal on the Internet.  Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) machines use a similar data transmission systems so that the machine does not have to be taken into a physicians office for the SD card to be read.  The Smartphone app in this case allows the patient to decide to release the data.

There are several stories about this technology written from the Big Brother perspective.  In other words trusting corporations or governments with this data is just asking for trouble.  The opposition will say that your data is already out there in social media, copies of critical data (text messages, emails, phone logs, travel routes, GPS locations, etc),  and there is plenty of evidence that even secure accounts can be hacked.  What difference does some information about medication taking make?

As a psychiatrist, I can't envision much demand for this technology on a clinical basis.  The best way to document medication taking is to just ask a person and check a plasma level of the drug.  The most common scenario is that the person is just not getting any better and I need to know if it is due to inadequate levels of the medication or the medication is just not effective.  Practically all guidelines suggest doses and time frames to demonstrate medication nonreponse.  Psychiatrists have had long acting injectable medications available for some time.  They work in the context of a good working relationship.  The patient has to show up very two to four weeks for an injection.  In the case of nonresponse it may still be a good idea to check plasma levels.

The pill checking technology may be an adjunct to plasma levels to document that the medication has been taken reliably enough to produce a steady state of medication in the therapeutic range.  This may be valuable in clinical trials where pills counts have been used as evidence of pill taking.   In clinical research and practice the patient would need to be informed and consent to taking the pill.

Forensic applications may occur in the case of coerced care.  For example, a patient may be under a court order to take the medication and may prefer to take an oral medication.  This would allow the court to follow the patient's medication taking to document compliance with the court order.

There are several post-Orwellian scenarios that I am concerned about.  The first is patent extension.  The pill-sensor preparation is a distinct product and I would not be surprised that it results in another extension of the Abilify patent for this preparation.  It would allow for a high medication cost even when the original Abilify preparation can be sold as generic aripiprazole.  Secondly, if the electronic patent does extend the patent,  the patent may be much longer than a pharmaceutical patent based on the electronic device.  This is analogous to the situation with Advair inhalers where the mechanical apparatus of the inhaler prevented the pharmaceutical portion of the inhaler from going generic and extended the patent on a billion dollar drug.                         

A third potential problem occurs at the level of what physicians will be forced to do to justify this medication.  Will it be just the usual prior authorization or will it be more than that?  I could see a scenario very similar to the current CPAP scenario used by a number of healthcare organizations.  Many organizations currently rent out CPAP machines to patients with diagnosed sleep apnea and then download the electronic data about usage.  If the patient has not used the machine at the level they expect, they insist that the machine be given back and the patient must pay a resterilizing and restocking fee.  Will that be a new standard for expensive pharmaceuticals?  Can we expect that the patient will only take an expensive drug on a trial basis?  If the pill monitoring system says they are missing too many days - they will have to take a less expensive generic drug in the same class.

What will the physician's role be in all of this?  They will need to get data from the Smartphone portal.  Are there fees associated with that?  How much staff time will be involved?  Will this system require human support like the electronic health record?     

There are a lot of unanswered questions. Post-Orwellian medicine assumes that there will be widespread acceptance of gadgetry and further privacy intrusions.  But that is the practice of medicine we are left with when it is run by businesses and government - not physicians.

The design of a medication like this also has a distinctive propharmaceutical bias.  It assumes that medications that generally have diffuse effects on multiple organ systems in the body are producing a highly selective and effective medication response.  The "cure" is the pill.  Take the pill and you will be all right.  In fact, we have seen that when patients are actively engaged in their care taking pills is not that much of a problem.  For example, one of the most potent interventions for the chronically hypertensive patient is to have him or her monitor their own blood pressure at home.  In many cases, they can take less medication, fewer classes of medication and have better blood pressure control.

In the case of Abilify MyCite one of the suggestions about the need for this medication is that patients with schizophrenia have high rates of not taking their medications.  There are psychosocial interventions like public health nursing and ACT teams that work quite well to assist people with their medication.  There are long acting injectable forms of medication.  There is a large body of work on cognitive deficits and lack of insight in schizophrenia that is untapped at a clinical level today.  Clearly - all of the healthcare companies and governments funding treatment of schizophrenia want to keep it as simple as possible.  That involves pretending that all of these other problems don't exist and that the real problem is that the patient won't take their medications every day.  Medications that have been suggested by a psychiatrist they see 3 or 4 times a year who hardly knows them.

That myth may be one of my biggest objections to this system.


George Dawson, MD, DFAPA



References:


1:  George Orwell.  Politics and the English language. (see the send to the last sentence)  Full text

2:  Geoffrey Nunberg. Going Nucular: Language, Politics, and Culture in Confrontational Times.  Public Affairs Press. 2014: p 121-125.

3:  Prachi Patel.  Gulp! Electronics go down the hatch.  Chemical Engineering News.  October 16, 2017. p 20 - 22.



Attribution:

The Chip on a pill download is from Shutterstock per their licensing agreement.   Stock illustration ID: 763524688  Chip on pill with medicine box. 3D Render by haryigit.


Monday, November 27, 2017

Psychiatry or Anti-Psychiatry Blog How Do You Tell?





I was recently e-mailed a graphic that declared "Top 100 Psychiatry Blog" and encouraged me to display it on my blog.  I was contacted again a week later and asked why I was not displaying the graphic.  My first question was whether there really were 100 psychiatry blogs on the Internet.  My second question was whether there was any advertising hype associated with this offer.  The Internet seem like one big ad these days.  What appears to be a reasonable site often degenerates into more mouse clicks than an electronic health record in order to get viewers close to ads so that they count as advertising revenue.  There are plenty of sites out there that just link to other sites and try to get advertising revenue without producing any original content. 

I visited the list of blogs and several were familiar.   I have a number of blogs written by the psychiatrists who I follow attached to this web site in my profile - along with a number of scientific blogs.  I don't think that ranking them serves any useful purpose, but I will say that they seem very reasonable to me.  At the same time there were also blogs listed there that were more antipsychiatry than anything.  Are antipsychiatry blogs psychiatry blogs?  What if they are implicitly rather than explicitly antipsychiatry blogs?  Does that make a difference?  I think that if you are writing from a strictly or even loosely antipsychiatry vantage point it probably has very little to do with psychiatry.  These sites exists and you can certainly go there.  You can read them exclusively.  But I would not equate them to a psychiatry blog that is written by someone who knows the field and is interested in scientific discussions about the field.   

So what are the red flags if you are wondering about a psychiatric blog that you might be reading? Here are a few guideposts:

1.  They are not written by psychiatrists -

Believe it or not there are a multitude of people on the Internet writing about subjects that they have no knowledge of at all.  It turns out that psychiatry is a complex subject that requires a great deal of scholarship in training and on an ongoing basis.  It is not generally amenable to lay interpretations of the meaning of brain imaging studies or clinical trials.  Some of the top viewed posts on this blog are excellent examples.  Some of the major Internet sites have writers that clearly do not know the subject material but do not hesitate to provide a heavy handed analysis that is often miles away from reality.  Fake news is an overused term that can't easily be applied to opinion.  I had a couple of readers ask the question: "Well - aren't we entitled to our opinion?"  Of course you are entitled to your opinion - but your opinion really does not apply to the real treatment of psychiatric illnesses or what is really happening in psychiatry.  There are blogs out there who bombastically target about "reforming" psychiatry when the opinions expressed on those sites clearly indicate that none of the authors knows anything about the practice of psychiatry or the influence of business and government on the care of mental illnesses.         


2.   They are written by psychiatrists -

Curiously - psychiatry itself has produced some world class antipsychiatrists who in some cases affiliated themselves with more notorious antipsychiatry organizations.  For me Thomas Szasz is a clear case in point.  In fact, some of his antipsychiatry rhetoric has become so mainstream that it is even used by psychiatrists when they wax rhetorical.  I recommend a skeptical approach to any blog - even if it is written by a psychiatrist that is a blanket condemnation of the field or that makes it seem like every conceivable problem with mental health diagnosis and treatment can be blamed on psychiatry or psychiatrists.  There is generally an air of superiority in the writing as in "Most other psychiatrists have these problems but I don't, because either I am intellectually superior or my methods are superior."  To my knowledge that condition has never existed in the history of the field.

3.  They may be the remnants of the newspaper business selling the news -

Every week I get one and sometimes two large newspapers in my driveway whether I want them or not.  The newspaper business is so desperate that they have to give papers away. They have stopped cold calling every week with some promotion that everyone knows these days is just a scheme to rapidly escalate the charges to the point that you cancel the subscription and start over.  It is obvious that nobody wants to buy a newspaper anymore.  I don't even want it littering my driveway for free.  I feel badly for another industry gone obsolete - but not bad enough to buy a newspaper.  That unhealthy atmosphere drives all manner of provocative headlines.  What used to be a discussed and edited product is now like anything else on the Internet - provocative and looking for mouse clicks and advertising revenue. The spin offs of these newspapers are generally as bad.  Some of them are "Top 100" sites. Not the best sources to consider for unbiased news about psychiatry - especially in the context of a well documented pre-existing media bias against psychiatry.

4.  They are uniformly negative about psychiatry and psychiatric practice-

One of the main reasons for this blog is to simply point out that most media is biased against psychiatry and psychiatrists - if anything the blogs are much worse.  I wrote an early post on this blog about how a writer has to adopt an overly negative view of psychiatry in combination with an overly positive view of the rest of medicine to be that negative about psychiatry.  In the real world, the demand for psychiatry has greatly exceeded the supply.  Non-physician specialists are now being hired en masse to fill unfilled psychiatric positions.  Psychiatrists are consulting in collaborative care models with primary care physicians to enable them to treat more psychiatric problems and prevent closed practices that occur when psychiatrists provide individualized care.  All of this hiring is being done by organizations that would just as soon not hire any psychiatrists if they could get away with it.  That is strong economic proof that psychiatrists and psychiatry has a lot to offer tens of thousands of patients in these health plans. 

5.  They are basically fronts for antipsychiatry cults-

As a psychiatrist with limited resources I am not about to name names and end up in some endless cycle of ridiculous litigation.  You really have to do your homework on this one, because nobody can afford to stick their neck out and names names.  Sites on the Internet that were set up to follow and characterize these groups have been intimidated into removing material or in some cases just shutting down.   These sites are often obvious by over the top rhetoric about psychiatry or psychiatrists, but many are now taking a more subtle approach.  They can give the appearance of being legitimate - right up to the point that they may offer services or request donations.  The services often cost very large amounts of money.  The legitimate psychiatry blogs I read are not looking for patients or funds.  They also point out they are not handing out medical advice and that they are generally for educational or scientific purposes.  One of the best ways to investigate questionable clinical services or requests for donations is to make sure that they have appropriate site licenses and professional licenses by state regulatory agencies.   

6.  They are written by somebody who claims they have been wronged by a psychiatrist-

I am always skeptical of this approach, basically because if you have been wronged by physicians in American society there are generally more remedies than there are in any place in the world.  I have repeatedly pointed out that the boards of medical practice in any state have a very low threshold for investigating physicians and assigning punishment that can include license forfeiture.  Practically all physicians these days are employees in healthcare organizations and there are administrators in those organizations who may be even more eager than medical boards to discipline physicians right up to firing them.  All three of these entities - medical boards, employers, and malpractice attorneys have very strong incentives for going after physicians.  In fact, any physician caught in that cross fire does not stand a chance - even if they have done nothing wrong.  American society is renowned for being litigious and medical malpractice is one of the cash cows.  There are 3 ready solutions for people who feel they have been wronged by any physician.  When I compare the time it takes to write a vituperative blog for no real gain to these cash, justice, or revenge solutions - the logical questions is why?  There are not many good answers to that question.  I can think of maybe one or two - but even then extrapolating from an isolated case to thousands of doctors requires an illogical leap - especially while maintaining an equal level of contempt.

Keep all of this in mind.  A "Top 100" site may include sites that are there to bash psychiatrists or the profession.  It may be written by someone with absolutely no knowledge of psychiatry or (potentially worse) a psychiatrist who thinks that they know more than any other psychiatrist who was ever born.

Like most things on the Internet - let the reader beware.



George Dawson, MD, DFAPA






Friday, November 24, 2017

Koch's Book On Consciousness




I was pleasantly surprised to find this book.  I have been following the work of Guilio Tononi for some time and that involves reading articles co-authored by Christof Koch as one his main collaborators.  There also have several excellent videos available on YouTube where they discuss consciousness and Integrated Information Theory (IIT) of consciousness.  In this book we learn about Koch's personal and professional trajectory in the field and several of his influences.  He is currently the President and Chief Scientific Officer of the Allen Institute for Brain Science and a Professor of Biology and Engineering at Caltech.  His academic credentials are available at the link to his web page and they are reviewed in this book as a backdrop to how he came to the field of consciousness studies.     

The layout of the book is 10 chapters over 166 pages.  It is well written in that it contains technical terms but they are well explained for the novice.  On the other hand there are also higher level concepts pertaining to consciousness that will probably not be obvious to many readers that are well explained and worthwhile reading for anyone who is not an expert in the field.  The text reminds me of a slim guide to neuropathology that one of my med school professors claimed was the only book he studied to pass his subspecialty boards exams.  In other words, the more you bring to a book like this, the more you may take away.  At the same time it is interesting reading for a novice.   

A typical chapter is organized around clinical and scientific observations, associated philosophy and the personal experience and meaning to the author.  I thought about characterizing the writing as a very good blog, but this writing by one of the top neuroscientists of our time is several levels above that.  Koch writes from the perspective of admiration of some of the best scientists in the world when it is clear that he is among them.  He adds a unique perspective referencing his training, his family and social life, and the relationships he has with colleagues and mentors.  In the final chapter he describes how his career and experience has impacted on his belief system and personal philosophy.

I will touch on a couple of examples of what he covers and the relevance to consciousness.  Chapter 5: Consciousness in the Clinic is a chapter that is most accessible to clinicians specializing in the brain.  He briefly summarizes achromatopsia and prosopagnosia or face-blindness.  He discusses prosopagnosia from the perspective of clinical findings and associated disability, but also consciousness.  For example, patients with this lesion do not recognize faces but they do have autonomic responses (galvanic skin resistance) when viewing faces that they know (family or famous people) relative to unknown people.  This is evidence of processing that occurs at an unconscious level that he develops in a subsequent chapter.  He describes the Capgras delusion - as the "flip-side" of prosopagnosia in that they face is recognized but the patient believes the original person has been replaced by an impostor.  In this case the expected increase in galvanic skin resistant is lacking because there is no autonomic response to unconscious processing.

In the same chapter he details the problem of patients in a coma,  persistent vegetative state (PVS) and minimally conscious state (MCS) and how some new developments in consciousness theory and testing may be useful. From a consciousness perspective coma represent and absence of consciousness - no arousals and no sleep transitions.  Persistent vegetative state result in some arousals and sleep-awake transitions.  In the minimally conscious state there are awakenings and purposeful movements. The minimally conscious person may be able to communicate during the brief arousals.  At the clinical level being able to distinguish between the persistent vegetative state and the minimally conscious state is important from both a clinical and medico-legal perspective. He discusses the use of fMRI in the case of apparently unresponsive patients who are able to follow direction to think about very specific tasks and produce the same brain pattern of activation seen in controls.  In a subsequent chapter Tononi and Massimini use transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) for the same purpose.  This technique is considered proof of IIT as well as a clinical test to differentiate PVS from a minimally conscious state.  In normal awake volunteers the TMS impulse results in brief but clear pattern of reverberating activation that spreads from the original stimulation site to surrounding frontal and parietal cortex.  The pattern can be viewed in this online paper (see figure 1).  In the patient who is in non-REM sleep there is no cortical spread from this impulse and the total impulse duration is less, illustrating a lack of cortical integration required for a conscious state.  When applied to PVS versus MCS patients, the MCS patients show the expected TMS/EEG response that would be seen in conscious patients.  The PVS patients do not.  He describes the TMS/EEG method as a "crude consciousness meter" but obviously one that probably has a lot more potential than traditional clinical methods.



There are many other clinical, philosophical and scientific issues relevant to consciousness that are discussed in this book that I won't go into.  I will touch on a recurring theme in the book that gets back to the title and that is science and reductionism.  Philosophical perspectives are covered as well as the idea that the origin of consciousness may not be knowable by scientific methods. Koch's opinion is that most everything is knowable by science and that science generally has a better track record of determining what is knowable.  That is certainly my bias and I am on record as being an unapologetic reductionist rather than a romantic one.                           

This is a book that should be read by psychiatrists and residents.  These concepts will hopefully be some of the the mainstays of 21st century psychiatry.  It can be read at several levels.  I was interested in the development of Koch's ideas about consciousness.  I wanted to learn about his relationship with collaborators.  I was pleasantly surprised to learn that we had similar thoughts about popular media, philosophy, and and psychodynamic psychiatry.  I have had career long involvement in neuropsychiatry and behavioral neurology so the description of cortical localization and clinical syndromes was second nature to me.  But even against that background, he makes it very clear where consciousness comes in to play.  One of my concerns about psychiatric training is that there is not enough emphasis on neuroscience and consciousness.  Condensed into this small book there are number of jumping off points.  Each chapter has a collection of annotations and there is a list of about 100 scientific references at the end.  It may take some work, but this book is a brief syllabus on how to get up to speed in this important area and greatly extend your knowledge of how the brain works.


George Dawson, MD, DFAPA


Reference:

Christof Koch.  Consciousness: Confessions of a Romantic Reductionist.  First MIT Press Paperback.  Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2017.  Copyright 2012.   

Attribution:

Figure 1 above used with permission of the publisher.  The complete reference is:

1:  Massimini M, Ferrarelli F, Sarasso S, Tononi G. Cortical mechanisms of loss of consciousness: insight from TMS/EEG studies. Arch Ital Biol. 2012 Jun-Sep;150(2-3):44-55. doi: 10.4449/aib.v150i2.1361. Review. PubMed PMID: 23165870.  Open Access Free Text.

Sunday, November 19, 2017

What Are The Implications Of The Suboxone Versus Vivitrol Study For Treating Opioid Use Disorder?




A major study came out in the Lancet last week that was a head-to-head comparison of  Suboxone (buprenorphine-naloxone or BUP-NX) and Vivitrol (extended-release naltrexone or XR-NTX).  I am beginning with the product names here because they were the actual medications used in the study and nobody uses the generic names at this point other than physicians.  This is an important study for a couple or reasons.  The first is that oral naltrexone tablets have already been tried for the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD) and that approach failed.  XR-NTX used in this study is a long acting intramuscular injection that is given every 28 days.  The second is that many people with OUD do not want to take BUP-NX for many reasons.  They may be philosophically opposed.  They may have the experience that they know they will relapse on it, using heroin and then covering heroin withdrawal with BUP-NX.  They may not be able to tolerate the medication either because of side effects or the possibility of cognitive side effects.  The cognitive set of the patient is also important in the decision.  It is common to find patients who benefit from XR-NTX because using the medication makes heroin ineffective and therefore using it is a waste of money.

The study design is relatively straightforward.  This is a 24 week open-label randomized trial comparing BUP-NX to XR-NTX.  There is no placebo arm and I hope that at this point there are no human subjects committees suggesting that there should be.  OUD is just too dangerous to be considering a placebo group.  The protocols for starting treatment with either medication make blinding impossible. Eight study sites of the National Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (CTN) were used.  One of the non-uniform aspects of this trial was that the detox protocols varied by site:

1:  Two sites used no opioids, but used clonidine or "comfort meds" a term that I really don't like to see. Other comfort meds typically include an NSAID like naproxen for muscle and joint pain, hydroxyzine for anxiety and insomnia, methocarbamol for muscle spasm, and dicyclomine for abdominal cramping.

2:  Four sites used 3-5 day methadone tapers.

3:  Two sites used 3-14 day buprenorphine tapers. 

If a subject was going on to the XR-NTX group they had to be off all opioids for three days, have negative toxicology for the presence of opioids, and have a negative naloxone challenge test.  The authors don't explicitly state this but all of these detox protocols favor BUP-NX in the induction phase or initial dosing toward maintenance.  That is basically because most moderate to heavy users of heroin will be experiencing withdrawal symptoms at the end of these protocols.

Random assignment of 283 subjects to the XR-NTX group and 287 subjects to the BUP-NX group occurred.  Early termination occurred for a number of reasons in 78 of the XR-NTX group and 62 of the BUP-NX group.  A total of 283 and 287 subjects respectively were assigned in the final intent to treat analysis.

The primary outcome variable was time to relapse.  Relapse was defined as self report of use and either provided positive urine toxicology for any non-study opioid or failed to provide a urine sample.  The subjects were seen weekly for monitoring of cravings, self reported use, reports of adverse events and report of other substance use.  Standard physician or nurse led office based medication management was described as happening at these visits.  It is not clear to me what that is but they described a standard medication focused visit.  Psychosocial counseling was recommended and available but it was not a variable for this research. 

Secondary outcome variables included portion of subjects getting through the induction phase and into the active study, adverse events (including overdoses), frequency of non-opioid study use, and opioid cravings (rated on a 0-100 visual analogue scale).

In terms of results, they were broken down across several variables.  The intent-to-treat analysis showed that relapse-free survival was 8.4 weeks in the XR-NTX group and 14.4 weeks in the BUP-NX group but 20.4 weeks in the XR-NTX group and 15.2 weeks in the BUP-NX group when the protocol group rather than treatment intent was used.  The difference in these results was due to induction (starting of either medication at the end of detox) failures in the XR-NTX group.  The rates of successful XR-NTX induction varied site from 95% at an extended stay opioid free program to 52% at the methadone detox programs.  Self reported opioid abstinent parallels these results.  The graphical representations of these data (survival curves) show essentially parallel curves after an initial drop due to differences in the induction protocol.  The authors conclude that the drugs are equally safe and effective in preventing opioid relapse.

A separate interesting survival curve was the rating of opioid cravings over time.  The authors interpretation of these curves was that that the BUP-NTX group had fewer cravings initially but that by 24 weeks the ratings converged.  There may be some additional data in that graph showing that the low point in cravings was reached about 5 weeks earlier in the BUP-NX group and therefore it persistent longer.

The other important secondary outcome measure was the number of overdose deaths.  If analyzed just by the protocol there were 10 overdose events in the XR-NTX group and 9 overdose events in the BUP-NX group.  Including the failed induction subjects in the intent-to-treat analysis increases these number to 18 and 10 respectively.  There were 2 fatal overdoses in the XR-NTX group and 3 fatal overdoses in the BUP-NX group. The fatal overdose group was due to failed induction and premature termination of treatment.

As a physician involved in the treatment of OUD the implications here are:

1.  BUP-NX and XR-NTX are equivalent treatments and should be recognized as such - there has been some press about XR-NTX not being an "evidence-based" treatment despite the fact that it has been in use for some time.  Those articles either ignore the fact that it had the FDA approved indication or they ridicule the study used to get that approval. Here is the additional evidence.

2.  There is a need for standardized opioid detox protocols that are optimized for patient safety and efficacy for treating withdrawal symptoms - the three options used in the treatment center in these trials are representative of what is available in the community.  One of the goals of detox is to optimize  the transition to medication assisted treatment (MAT) to prevent relapse to opioid use.  As the authors point out the lack of a smooth transition to XR-NTX was the main reason for treatment failures and poorer outcomes in that group in the intent-to-treat  analysis.

3.  Besides the detoxification protocol other resources to facilitate the transition from detox to MAT maintenance are unknown -  It is clear that transitioning the patient from detox to MAT is a critical step in the treatment process. That not only involves the medication but the structure of the program and individual patient support at that time.  People leave treatment for sustained and untreated withdrawal symptoms and that include severe psychiatric comorbidity including severe anxiety +/- panic attacks, insomnia that often involves days of no sleep and drenching night sweats, and depression.  There is often a lot of confusion over which symptoms are due to an associated psychiatric disorder and which symptoms are due to withdrawal.  The confusion can be heightened if the patient comes in being treated for anxiety, insomnia, or depression with a maintenance medication.  The current paper does not describe an optimal path for treating those patient characteristics (psychiatric disorders and other substance use disorders were an exclusion criteria).   

4.  Optimal patient selection for the BUP-NX versus XR-NTX are unknown - In additional to significant psychiatric symptoms there are a number of other factors that will influence patient selection not the least of which are cost and logistics.  In many parts of the country it is still extremely difficult to find a BUP-NX provider.  Even when a physician is found, many do not accept insurance and the out of pocket cost for patients for both the visits and associated lab tests is prohibitive.  XR-NTX is a very expensive injection that may not be covered by insurance companies or patient assistance programs.  This study may increase the likelihood of coverage despite the fact that XR-NTX has had an FDA approved indication for "the prevention of relapse to opioid dependence, following opioid detoxification" since 2010. 

5.  Clinicians should use this information to discuss realistic treatment with their patients - as I have previously pointed out BUP-NX is no panacea and neither is XR-NTX.  Contrary to the idea that antagonist therapy prevents overdoses, there was no significant differences in overdose deaths in this study.  That should lead to a very serious informed consent based discussion about these medications with patients.  The idea of how long the medication should be taken or whether it should be taken indefinitely should not be part of that initial discussion.  The focus needs to be on completing detox and transitioning onto one of these medications.  The patient's capacity to make a realistic decision and what their preferences are with regard to these medications are all part of that process.  Life is not a randomized clinical trial.  Part of the skill set of the physician is the ability to have these discussions. It takes more than the ability to prescribe these medications.

That's my take on the head-to-head comparison of Vivitrol (XR-NTX) and Suboxone (BUP-NX).  Even with effective treatments to prevent relapse to opioid use - many more elements need to be in place.  The practical issue most frequently discussed is the availability of prescribers. Nobody seems to be talking about the fact that some treatment programs offer neither option.  There is also very little discussion about the fact that some treatment programs lack the atmosphere or expertise to provide patients with a shot at being successful and getting off opioids. 

We have come a long way with agents to treat OUD  compared to the days when I would see hospitalized heroin addicts who wanted to stop but had no realistic options.  I could only offer the 3 days methadone detox, continuing their methadone maintenance dose, or covering the sympathetic symptoms of withdrawal with clonidine. I could tell them where the closest methadone maintenance program was but that did not assure them an appointment or a place in that program.  Federal Law at the time prohibited the active treatment of OUD unless you happened to be in a licensed methadone maintenance program. Now that the legal and regulatory landscape has improved - it is up to treatment programs everywhere to get up to speed and offer state of the art care.  It is up to state licensing agencies to not allow treatment centers to take care of these patients if they don't.


George Dawson, MD, DFAPA



References:


1:  Joshua D Lee, Edward V Nunes Jr, Patricia Novo, Ken Bachrach, Genie L Bailey, Snehal Bhatt, Sarah Farkas, Marc Fishman, Phoebe Gauthier, Candace C Hodgkins, Jacquie King, Robert Lindblad, David Liu, Abigail G Matthews, Jeanine May, K Michelle Peavy, Stephen Ross, Dagmar Salazar, Paul Schkolnik, Dikla Shmueli-Blumberg, Don Stablein, Geetha Subramaniam, John Rotrosen.  Comparative effectiveness of extended-release naltrexone versus buprenorphine-naloxone for opioid relapse prevention (X:BOT): a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial.  The Lancet
Published: November 14, 2017.


       


Friday, November 17, 2017

Waiting List Mortality? - An Example of Nocturnal Panic Attacks




Any PubMed search on waiting list mortality will produce a long list of articles on mortality that occurs on transplantation waiting lists and all of the associated ethical and logistic problems.  I could not locate any work done on waiting lists to get in to see psychiatrists, primary care physicians, or specialists.  To an extent, waiting list mortality is expected and some of the risk factors (increasing age, significant chronic medical illnesses, high  risk medications) is undoubtedly predictive.  But what about the person who calls in and describes a clear cut problem that is misclassified and the error is potentially life threatening.  I have picked up a few of these problems in psychiatric clinics where the ultimate emergency diagnosis was unrelated to the reason for the appointment.  Seeing a patient who is white as a ghost, complaining of coffee ground emesis, and determining the hemoglobin to be 7 is one of many examples.  Anxiety was the reason for that appointment.  I have found a number of acutely anemic patients due to blood loss with complaints about anxiety, shortness of breath, and panic attacks  who really needed blood transfusions.

I have a more concrete recent example that is much more common in psychiatric practice, especially if a significant number of patients with alcohol and benzodiazepine problems are being seen.  That is the problem of nocturnal anxiety with panic attacks.  To make it a little more interesting, let's say our hypothetical patient is 55 years old, has a history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (2 brief episodes), does not take an anticoagulant, and takes flecainide to prevent atrial fibrillation and metroprolol to prevent palpitations.  He has obstructive sleep apnea and is on APAP.  His AHI is 3.5 or less on any given night.  He has never has an electrophysiological study. Stress test and echocardiogram were both negative.  He has had to taper the metoprolol over a period of about 5 years from 25 mg BID to 3.125 mg daily due to lower and lower BP.  Suddenly the patient is noticing palpitations at night.  They seem to occur at the end of REM type dreams and do not seem to correlate with the emotional content of the dream.  The awakenings with palpitations typically occur at 4AM.  He has not had a panic attacks in 35 years.  He does not drink or use benzodiazepines.  To terminate the palpitations he gets up and drinks a large glass of water or walks around and they resolve in about 10 - 20 seconds.  He gets a small single lead ECG device that reads one aberrant beat as "occasional PVC".

He gets in to see his primary care MD in a couple of days.  His exam is normal and he is in sinus rhythm.  No aberrant heart beats are noted by his internist.  Electrolytes and magnesium level are normal.  He goes home that night and the palpitations continue.  He calls his sleep medicine physicians who tells him to start with his Cardiologist.  He calls the Cardiologist who concludes that "these are beats that originate in the lower chambers of the heart and there is nothing to be concerned about." Despite the acute change in symptoms that is waking him up on a nightly basis - no further testing, examination. or diagnosis is offered.  Frustrated - he calls a referral center and schedules a sleep study in about 2 1/2 months.

Is there something else that could have happened in this case? If you happen to be this man's psychiatrist - like I am in many of these cases of sleep related symptoms what is the differential diagnosis and what else can be done.  A reasonable differential diagnosis of these palpitations might consider the following list of conditions.

 
Night time palpitations – differential diagnosis:

1.
Sleep  terrors
2.
Nightmares
3.
Nocturnal panic attacks
4.
Alcohol or sedative hypnotic withdrawal
5.
Stimulant or hallucinogen intoxication
6.
Cardiac arrhythmia
Tachyarrhythmias
Ventricular arrhythmias
Supraventricular arrhythmias
Conduction delay arrhythmias

In considering the list. there are some useful clinical features.  Sleep terrors are rare in adults.  They typically occur in the first half of the night.  The patient suddenly arouses from sleep.  They may  scream.  They have intense sympathetic output including diaphoresis, flushing, tachycardia, tachypnea,and mydriasis.  They may appear to be disoriented.  Nightmares are typically dreams with negative emotional content that occur with awakening from non-REM sleep.  Sympathetic arousal is not as prominent.  Nocturnal panic attacks (NP) can occur in people with daytime panic attacks (DP) or as a separate entity.  People with combined DP/NP had more symptom severity. Palpitations are a feature of panic attacks.  In a recent study (2) the authors also rule out associated disorders  like substance use problems and obstructive sleep apnea by exclusion and testing.  The pure NP group were predominately male, had a childhood history of sleep terrors, and were more likely to have respiratory symptoms (choking sensations) despite a lower overall symptom severity score than the DP/NP group suggesting a more common mechanism with night terrors.  Because of the similarity between nocturnal panic attacks, sleep terrors, dream anxiety attacks and nocturnal seizures some authors encourage "extreme caution" in making the diagnosis (3).

The alcohol and substance intoxication and withdrawal states may be less obvious outside of treatment setting specializing in these disorders.  Patients with these problems may not disclose the full extent of use.  In the proper context, discontinuation of both cannabis and hallucinogens like LSD occurs due to increasing anxiety and panic attacks.  Alcohol and sedative hypnotic withdrawal can cause prominent sympathetic symptoms including night sweats, tachycardia, and panic attacks.  Those symptoms typically resolve with treatment of the underlying withdrawal syndrome.  In some cases the anxiety and panic attacks persist and require additional treatment.

Pure cardiac symptoms associated with sleep can be confusing.  The patient is aroused and may notice the arrhythmia.  The question becomes is the arrhythmia secondary to anxiety and sympathetic arousal or is the anxiety secondary to the chest sensation?  In the case of a patient with known sleep apnea and atrial fibrillation here are several possible causes including breakthrough atrial fibrillation at the time of the awakening.  In this case there was a crude monopolar tracing that showed a ventricular premature beat (VPB).  VPBs are commonly associated with anxiety, but is it enough to count on the patient capturing the event by getting up out of bed and holding an inexpensive device to his chest?  Patient with sleep disordered breathing are at increased risk from nocturnal death (midnight to 6AM) and one of the mechanisms may be arrhythmia from the cardiac effects of sleep disordered breathing. 

The patient in this case is very much alive and functioning at a high level.  He still has the nocturnal palpitations but is less anxious about them because they are now intermittent and always seem to resolve in a short period of time. If he thinks about it for nay length of time the question that comes up is: "Why now?"  He hopes that the referral center will have the answer to that question.

  I don't have any outcome or ready solutions to this problem. In many ways it highlights a potential quality problem in the high tech American healthcare system.  Here we have a patient who is fairly compulsive about his own health care.  He has a primary care physician who he saw and contacted both his specialists.  When there was no answer, he contacted a referral center and set up an appointment 2 1/2 months out into the future.  What will happen while he is on that waiting list is a probability statement with a series of unknown probabilities.  What is disappointing from my perspective as a physician trained in the 1980s is that at some point - the rigorous intellectual approach to patients problems has fallen by the wayside in favor of rationing.  We are no longer in pursuit of a diagnosis that might make a difference.  We are satisfied with saying "I checked off all of the boxes and I didn't see anything".  It's a 21st century variation of the old joke: "The operation was a success but unfortunately the patient died."

I am very interested in what the cost of this approach is in terms of human life and additional comorbidity.  I think that what happens to people on these waiting lists (compared to controls) is where the emphasis should be place and not on how fast patients should be discharged and not readmitted to hospitals.  Despite all of the press about unnecessary tests and the risks associated with those tests, the commonest errors I see that result in patient injury is missing the obvious diagnosis and not doing the appropriate tests.     

There is something wrong with a health care system when a psychiatrist cares more about these problems than the physicians running the system.               


George Dawson, MD, DFAPA


References:

1:  Selim BJ, Koo BB, Qin L, et al. The Association between Nocturnal Cardiac Arrhythmias and Sleep-Disordered Breathing: The DREAM Study. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine : JCSM : Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. 2016;12(6):829-837. doi:10.5664/jcsm.5880.

2: Nakamura M, Sugiura T, Nishida S, Komada Y, Inoue Y. Is nocturnal panic adistinct disease category? Comparison of clinical characteristics among patients with primary nocturnal panic, daytime panic, and coexistence of nocturnal and daytime panic. J Clin Sleep Med. 2013 May 15;9(5):461-7. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.2666. PubMed PMID: 23674937.

3: Shouse M, Mahowald MW.  Epilepsy, sleep, and sleep disorders.  in: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. 5th ed. St. Louis, Missouri. Elsevier Sanders, 2011: 1048-1063.










       

Sunday, November 12, 2017

More on Benzodiazepines (Like Xanax).




The topic of benzodiazepines will just not go away.  At the top and bottom of this post - I include a number of book covers from my library on the topic from the last 30 years.  The publication dates are 1983, 1985, and 1990.  I wrote a brief review for the Psychiatric Times and included my unedited version  on this blog from earlier this year.  My overall message was that benzodiazepines as a group are great for very specific indications.  In fact for some indication like detoxification from alcohol or sedative hypnotic drugs and catatonia they are life saving.  The majority of benzodiazepines are not prescribed for those indications.  They are prescribed primarily as add on medications for anxiety and insomnia.  Their use is limited by tolerance and addictive properties that are expected from a medication that reinforces its own use.  It is also problematic to prescribe them to any population of patients where alcohol use is prevalent and not expect significant drug interactions or abuse.

I really wanted to include a graphic from the paper listed below (1) from JAMA Psychiatry on the prescribing rates of benzodiazepines in patients being treated for depression.  I will post it if I get permission.  That graph illustrates the growth in benzodiazepine prescribing from 2001 to 2104.  During that time the fraction of patients taking a benzodiazepine in addition  to an antidepressant rose from 6% to 12.5% of the depression treated patients.  Subgroups were analyzed and psychiatry came across as a the top prescriber of benzodiazepines across all years.  Other practitioners and specialists came in under the curve prescribed by psychiatrists. 

 A recent anxiety disorder diagnosis was a strong predictor of concurrent use of benzodiazepine use with 24.1% of patients with a recent unspecified anxiety disorder diagnosis and 39.1% or patients with a panic disorder diagnosis taking both the benzodiazepine and antidepressant.  At 6 months 45.6% of the antidepressant + benzodiazepine and 48.1% of the antidepressant monotherapy were still taking an antidepressant.  After initial adjustments 12.3% of the simultaneous benzodiazepine and antidepressant users received long term benzodiazepines with 5.7% taking them for one year.  The prescribed benzodiazepines were almost all high potency including alprazolam (43.9%), lorazepam (26.3%), and clonazepam (21.8%).  About a tenth (13.5%) of the patients got a limited supply of for only 1-7 days).

The authors generally conclude that benzodiazepine prescribing seems to be consistent with current guidelines.  These suggest that a Cochrane report that concomitant benzodiazepine use with antidepressants increased the short term antidepressant response and decreased the drop out rate attributable to antidepressant side effects.  I would think that would be offset at least as much by guidelines suggesting limited use.

The overall strength of this report is that it is a study of a very large insurance database population of 684,100 new antidepressant users and 81,020 simultaneous antidepressant and benzodiazepine users. They give a breakdown of antidepressant classes (overwhelmingly SSRIs).  Only 12.7% and 16.5% (respectively) of the patients in each class were treated by psychiatrists.  Interestingly 77.4% and 80% of each class had not received any form of psychotherapy, although it is conceivable that at least some patients were being seen by therapists outside of the database.  As noted psychiatrists were more likely to prescribe combination therapy.  The authors speculate that may be due to referral patterns and psychiatrists seeing patients with more severe anxiety and depression, training patterns in psychiatry, or more familiarity with benzodiazepine pharmacology.  I think a more likely factor is chronicity and the fact that psychiatrists tend to see more patients with chronic anxiety and temperamental forms of anxiety that are not taken into account in DSM-5 nosology.

Despite the large N, there are many drawbacks to database studies like this one.  I think it is useful in terms of the basic pharmacoepidemiology of prescriptions but it doesn't say anything about symptoms severity and many of the practical issues involved with benzodiazepine prescribing (like substance used disorders) are eliminated by the study protocol.  The authors do a good job of describing the downsides (use disorders, falls/fractures, motor vehicle accidents) of benzodiazepines in their discussion.  I would have included cognitive problems and tolerance. It also does not address the optimal way to address combined anxiety and depressive disorders. My biggest concern is the current "evidence based" fad of diagnosing anxiety and depressive disorders using symptom rating scales like the PHQ-9 (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) and the GAD-7 (Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item).  In a primary care setting they pass for a diagnosis.  In a psychiatric setting they short circuit any analysis of the etiological factors of anxiety or depression.  Instead these disorders are conceptualized as disorders that that require a basic medical treatment and they resolve.  That is a gross oversimplification.     

But the main limitation should be evident - we do not have a specific enough diagnostic system with reliable objective markers.  In that context a large N doesn't mean as much unless we know how many subtypes there are and the associated treatment parameters.

George Dawson, MD, DFAPA


References:

1:  Bushnell GA, Stürmer T, Gaynes BN, Pate V, Miller M. Simultaneous Antidepressant and Benzodiazepine New Use and Subsequent Long-term Benzodiazepine Use in Adults With Depression, United States, 2001-2014. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017;74(7):747–755. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.1273